Heritage Cattle Breeds for the Small Farm

Many of the historic Heritage Cattle breeds offer characteristics perfect for small farms and sustainable agriculture.

| March/April 2011

  • Ancient White Park Cattle
    Historically, in the United Kingdom, Ancient White Park cattle were used in rituals.
    courtesy American Livestock Breeds Conservancy
  • Highland Cattle
    Highland cattle were once known as kyloe cattle because they had to swim across the straits (or kyloes) to get to market on the mainland.
    courtesy American Livestock Breeds Conservancy
  • Family of Florida Cracker Cattle
    The natural immunities of the Florida Cracker result in fewer vet visits.
    courtesy American Livestock Breeds Conservancy
  • Red Poll Cattle
    The Queen of England owns one of the largest Red Poll cattle herds in the world.
    courtesy American Livestock Breeds Conservancy
  • Guernsey Cow
    On the Isle of Guernsey, this breed was selected for the richness of milk.
    courtesy American Livestock Breeds Conservancy

  • Ancient White Park Cattle
  • Highland Cattle
  • Family of Florida Cracker Cattle
  • Red Poll Cattle
  • Guernsey Cow

MOO-ve over Holstein and Angus, a few new cattle breeds are in town. Actually, they are not new breeds at all, but old breeds that are once again gaining favor on small farms and in sustainable production systems. These cattle breeds, known collectively as Heritage Cattle, have been a part of the American agricultural landscape since the arrival of Spanish colonists beginning in 1493. For centuries, these breeds have provided milk, meat, leather, tallow, draft power and companionship.

Today, many of these historic breeds are faced with extinction, but they are fighting to stay current. By finding niche markets for their products, these early American breeds just might have a chance to survive and thrive. Let’s meet some of the original cattle that were crucial to the success of American agriculture.

Ancient White Park
Status: Threatened

Rooted in the midst of antiquity, horned white cattle have been documented in England since the 13th century. In the centuries that followed, they spread throughout England, Scotland and Wales. Eventually some feral cattle herds were enclosed in deer parks, and as their wild habitats were destroyed, the only Ancient White Park cattle remaining were in these “parks.” During World War II, the British evacuated many Ancient White Park cattle to the Bronx Zoo for safekeeping. The cattle were eventually transported to the King Ranch in Texas, where they were kept as a closed herd for more than 40 years. Today, there are a few U.S. breeders raising this ancient breed.



Ancient White Park cows can weigh from 1,200 to 1,800 pounds, and bulls can reach 1,800 to 2,000 pounds. The cattle are white with black (or red) eye rings, ears, nose, feet and teats. Some animals have small speckles of white or blue on their coats. The breed has light-colored horns with a black tip. The breed is noted for its high fertility, easy calving, hardiness, adaptability and grazing ability. U.S. breeders are working to develop a market for the rich, tender Ancient White Park beef. Novices should note that the Ancient White Park is probably not the best choice for beginners.

Highland
Status: Recovering






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