Forest Management for the Farm

Proper woodlot management can generate fodder and income in addition to firewood.

| January/February 2013

  • Forest Management
    This forest has a very dense understory, full of saplings.
    Photo By Phil Shepherd
  • Woodlot Management
    Harvesting firewood is an important part of managing your woodlot, but you can get so much more.
    Photo By Fotolia/Brad Wynnyk
  • Pigs Rooting for Food
    Pigs naturally root for food, clearing the understory for mushroom growth, ryegrass planting and other lucrative pursuits.
    Photo By Fotolia/BasPhoto
  • Woodland Management
    There are a myriad of ways to make your woods profitable. Building paths and cabins for rent might be an option.
    Photo By Fotolia/Mikel Allica
  • Goats Eat Trees
    Goats are browsers, like deer, and love to devour shrubs and low-growing tree foliage. Sometimes they'll even climb up for a tasty morsel.
    Photo By Fotolia/Heiko Löffler
  • Mushroom Cultivation
    Whether you cultivate mushrooms or gather them wild, they can add value to your woodlands.
    Photo By Fotolia/Ihar Kaskevich

  • Forest Management
  • Woodlot Management
  • Pigs Rooting for Food
  • Woodland Management
  • Goats Eat Trees
  • Mushroom Cultivation

Timber sets — simply called the “woods” by most farm youngsters — are an integral aspect of country life. They offer wildlife habitat, firewood for heat, forage for animals, shade, wind protection and so much more. Often overlooked and thought of only in timber terms, there are multiple ways to create income from a small woodlot beyond selling saw logs. Read on and get the most from your wooded acres — be it for pasturing pigs or harvesting the occasional whitetail deer.

Pasturing pigs

If your woodlot is loaded with briars, vines and overgrown understory, pasturing pigs will help clear the mess out so grasses or more beneficial trees and plants can be propagated. We pasture about four pigs per acre of woods, but with more grain and the right soil conditions, you can seasonally keep up to 25 pigs per acre, depending on breed size and other variables. Or if you have a sufficient area of mixed eastern hardwoods, you can let one pig roam three to four acres all summer and feed very little grain. Folks lucky enough to have an orchard (or one nearby) might consider allowing the pigs to keep the orchard grounds free of windfalls.

Grazing other livestock

While pigs are an excellent option because they root and clear space, woodlands can be grazed by any livestock. Goats and cattle are excellent options. Goats can be used to clear out growth that other animals won’t eat. Some breeds of cattle are better at eating the shrubs and such than others; our Dexter cattle will eat just about anything a goat would consume.

Grazing your woodland will give you more pasture, and you should be able to market your beef, goat meat and offspring locally. Pastured meat production commands a higher price in most cases. Laws vary by state for selling meat, so be sure to check the rules and regulations for meat inspection.

Understory crops

With no animals grazing, a diversity of plants can be cultivated in the understory of forests. In the more southern reaches of the United States, one might consider planting galax, ginseng, tea trees, or other medicinal plants. Decorative native shrubs such as azaleas or rhododendrons can also be grown and sold to homeowners or nurseries for landscaping use.

Ginseng is by far the highest paying understory plant, but it takes about six years to reach a marketable size. It requires a north-facing slope for optimal production. However, ginseng’s growing environment can be simulated. This plant grows wild as far west as the edge of Nebraska and as far north as Maine. You can grow ginseng by purchasing stratified seed or rootlets. Some farms offer starter packages for growers that include rootlets and seeds.

4/8/2013 9:15:30 PM

Growing tea in most of America is dicey, & if you do, you will not also get tea tree oil, this comes from the tree, Melaleuca alternifolia, while tea come from a shrub, Camellia sinensis. There is such a thing as tea oil, but it is not tea tree oil, as stated in this article.

Scott Haskell
12/30/2012 4:44:01 PM

Hi Samantha......Really enjoyed this article Forest Management for the Farm. Especially so, since we are located in Western North Carolina, as well. We live on 22 acres in northern Jackson County. So far we have only utilized the land by gardening, cutting firewood and raising a few chickens. We're in the process of gearing up for more intense uses, with livestock as in pigs and miniature dairy cows. Hopefully by late spring we'll be on track. Again, we thoroughly enjoyed your article!

Samantha Biggers
12/26/2012 9:40:20 PM

opps the link is

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