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Returning to Innisfree


Preserving Riverside Property for Wildlife on a Family Farm

Vintage Photo Of Williams Prairie 

A picture taken around 1910 of what was called “Williams Prairie” and is now my farm. Pleasant Hill History Center photo shared with the author.

Our farm is bordered on two sides by the river. I have a picture taken around 1910 from the bluffs across the river from our farm, and the difference between then and now is shocking — there are hardly any trees along the riverbank. When my family purchased this land in the 1960s, mom and dad decided to take “good crop ground” out of production to allow Nature to do her thing. As unpopular as that decision was with pretty much everyone except my parents (and none of these other people were paying the mortgage, so you can guess how much attention my parents paid to them), it was the right decision.

This new buffer between the crop ground and the river reduced the amount of soil erosion from flooding, and the local fauna now had safe places to live and work. As the woods have grown and expanded over the last 50 plus years, we have become home to goodly numbers of deer, coyotes, raccoons, opossums, and a few foxes. We see red-tailed hawks, Cooper hawks, goshawks, buzzards, herons, geese, ducks, and occasionally bald eagles in the sky.

Owning Riverside Property

There are a few drawbacks to living next to a navigable river, including the regular flooding of the fields — a major problem if it floods after the crops have been planted — and the occasional boater not realizing (or ignoring) that the land is not part of the river. We’ve had to approach people who decided to camp on our property and light a fire, which can turn into a dangerous issue very quickly in the wild woods.

Even with these drawbacks, there are so many benefits to having the river as a neighbor. The crop fields next to the river have a constant water source because the water table is so close to the surface. In a drought year, this can be the difference between harvest and nothing. Allowing the trees to return has made the riverbank sturdier and less likely to erode, which keeps the land where it should be. The woods and river are a peaceful area to relax and recharge, and a great place to see some of the critters that live alongside us.

 36 current river 1

Current picture of the river and field area - what a change from the early 1900s! (Google Earth)

Stocking Wilde Turkeys On a Farm Property

Many years ago, one of the local wildlife agencies installed a wild turkey flock on our farm. For the next few years, we would see them out in the fields, picking through the debris and doing the things turkeys do. At one point, we found out that turkeys really can fly, and they were flying back and forth across the river, maybe splitting the flock? For a long time after that, no turkeys were heard or seen on the farm. We assumed they either flew across the river for their permanent home, found somewhere else to nest, or had all been eaten by the coyotes. I saw maybe a dozen hens with a few toms out in the field last year — they were back! I never really heard them, but it was nice to see that they had not all disappeared.

This year, I got to see just how well that flock was doing. At least two dozen hens and toms wandered into view at the edge of the cornfield one morning! Now it was a morning I would not have expected to see much wildlife out. It was in the high 30s to low 40s, but windy, and the overnight freezing rain had turned to blowing rain. But there they were, pecking around on the ground, preening, chasing each other, and flapping their wings.

36 turkeys 1

I was not expecting to see this many wild turkeys! (photo by Keba M Hitzeman)

After a while, they moved along to the driveway, loitered there for a half hour or so, then slowly made their way down our driveway towards the road. They crossed over the state route and disappeared into the neighbor’s field. We went out later, and they had utterly vanished.

Whether they are nesting on our farm or were simply passing through, it’s always enjoyable to see our wild neighbors. We intentionally provide habitat for them, and sometimes, you don’t know if your efforts are providing a benefit. Mornings like that one make me think we’re doing something right!

Have you let an area of your farm or backyard “go wild”? What wildlife (birds, insects, mammals, etc) have you seen? Have there been any new species?


Keba M. Hitzeman is an advocate, baseball fan, caregiver, chicken wrangler, daughter, farmer, fiber artist, gamer, gardener, herbalist, laborer, manager, musician, nature-lover, potter, shepherdess, and teacher. She owns and operates Innisfree on the Stillwater, a former beef cattle farm, where she currently raises sheep and goats. Read all of Keba’s posts in her GRIT series, Returning to Innisfree.

The End of July and Thinking of Winter

meadow
Photo by Unsplash/Amelia Bartlett

It’s the end of July, which for me, means thinking about winter and everything I need to do to prepare for those days of semi-frozen mud, wind chill, and not being able to put on enough layers to stay warm for more than two minutes outside. And that’s assuming we get a proper winter – it’s been hit or miss on the “winteriness” of Ohio winters for several years. Granted, I don’t fancy slogging through knee-deep snow to get to my beasties, but I do appreciate the extended freezes that kill many of the insects that would plague man and beast during the next summer.

I’m pretty sure that every farmer, whether growing a crop or raising animals, has a list of Things To Get Done Before Winter. Not going to lie, my list is always longer than the time I have to complete it. I tend to overestimate my abilities/strength/motivation to complete projects and underestimate the time needed. A farmer friend gave me some distressingly true advice – take the time you think you will need to complete a project, add 1 to the number and the next period-of-time word. So a project I think will take 2 hours, schedule 3 days. 3 days? Make that 4 weeks! I’m telling you, it’s been accurate more often than not, in my experience!!

inside of barn
Several projects in sight in this picture! Clean out the old hay and fix the hay feeders are two of them. Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

Off the top of my head, here is my unofficial list of Things To Get Done Before Winter: clean the old bedding from the barn. Set a new fence to keep the animals out of the creek (and give them a new pasture on the not-creek side of that fence). Collect all of the sheep panels and corral panels that have been used for temporary pastures. Install a gate across the old horse feeding area in the barn so the sheep can’t get in there. Pull off the cattle panels from the hay feeding area and reattach them with chains (I made the mistake of using the U-shaped nails, then realized I wouldn’t be able to open them up to clean out the old hay...sheesh...). High mow all the areas around the buildings and the fruit trees. Get my pottery studio up and running. Put the garden to bed, finish the new hugelkultur area in the perennial garden. Haul an astounding amount of brush to the brush pile. Reassemble an old snap-together plastic shed for a sheep shelter. Set a really long fence to separate a hay pasture from our “back to nature” ground. Send any remaining fleeces off to the fiber mill. Finish graveling a walking path. And that’s just the outside projects I can think of!

stack of green fence posts
We have the materials on hand for fence installation, but then it got hot and humid. Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

Looking at that list, many of those projects can be done solo, and, even using the above-mentioned time adjustment, can be completed in relatively short order. The “big deal” projects can be scheduled so there is help available. My next task (very difficult sometimes!) is to stay focused on each project long enough to finish, which means pacing myself, taking the breaks I need, and staying hydrated. There’s always a large element of self-care necessary in farm projects – taking longer to finish a project safely is better than pushing too hard and not being able to finish that last little bit. I’m confident (overconfident?) that I can get these done before the end of November if I don’t try to do them all at once! The weather is always a factor, too – if this hot and sticky weather keeps up, I’m stuck with only being able to get a couple hours of work done in the morning and a few hours in the evening. Breathing gets difficult from about 10:00am – 5:00pm when it’s hot, sunny, and humid. But there is plenty to do inside as well, so there’s that.

small trees in yard
 These little trees don't need to be in my yard - time to mow! Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

What’s on your Things To Get Done Before Winter list? Any projects that just “gotta get done” before the weather changes?

Not The Mama, But I’m Now The Mama

goatlings on cinderblock
A rare shot of my goatlings standing still! Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

There are weeks in the early spring that can be utterly exhausting. Sometimes things go as planned, and life is very good. Life is still good when things don’t go according to plan, but I get a lot less sleep and need a lot more caffeine to keep the ball rolling. Or, in this case, keep the milk flowing.

Breeding animals can be fraught with peril. There are so many things that can go wrong, from the health of the male and female before “the deed,” to the mama’s needs during gestation to keep that baby growing, to the birthing process itself. And once the baby (or babies) is here, things can still go awry. Ideally, even a first-time mama will recognize the squalling creature behind her as her own progeny, clean it up, and help it find the milk bar. Less ideally, mama needs some persuasion to let baby nurse for the first few times, then realizes that this is how it should be. And then you have those who want nothing to do with the life they’ve just brought into the world. They may clean it, “talk” to it, and even let it snuggle up to them to sleep, but when baby heads to find milk, that’s just too much. This is when I bring out the bottles and milk replacer, and start losing sleep.

(As an aside, I’ve had this happen to experienced mamas – they will be fine for years, then one year, nope, that baby isn’t mine, and you can’t make me nurse it. I don’t know what causes this “no thank you” switch to flip, because the next year, the same animal will be the best mama ever. Any thoughts on this phenomenon?)

goat
Photo by Unsplash/Roma Kaiuk

The first day, I tend to feed every 2-3 hours, getting colostrum into the lamb or kid. This “first milk” is so important to give the lamb antibodies and “wake up” its immune system. After 24-36 hours of multiple small feedings, I start mixing lamb milk replacer in and space the feedings to every 4 hours for a week or so. I’m keeping a close eye on how much each lamb or kid is eating to determine when I can increase the time between feedings.

As long as the mama isn’t trying to hurt the baby, I will keep them together, because after the first week to 10 days, the lamb will start nibbling at the hay it sees the adult eating. I’ve separated the lambs before, and in my experience, it takes the lamb longer to realize that hay is food when it doesn’t have an example to watch. Sometimes separation is necessary, but I avoid it when possible. It’s so satisfying to watch the lambs and kids as they start eating hay – another hurdle in the “baby to adult” marathon has been cleared!

For weeks two and three, feedings slowly switch from 4 times a day (8am, 2pm, 8pm, 2am) to 3 times a day, which works out to 8am, 3pm, 10pm feedings. I can sleep through the night again! I also add probiotic powder to their milk to keep them from getting scours. They still might (at least in my experience they do!), but the effects can be lessened by keeping that good gut bacteria working. By this point, they sometimes start drinking less milk from a bottle because they are eating more hay. Again, keeping a close eye on their development and growth is critical to make sure nothing bad is happening – are they pooing and peeing? Are they alert, playing? It’s not a chore to “have to” sit and watch them after they have their bottle to check their condition. Running and jumping babies are just so fun to watch!

goatling in motion
That blur to the left of the top picture is what the goatlings usually look like, and the bottom picture is where he came to rest for a snack! Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

The question of weaning is one of those hot-button issues – when to wean and how to wean will depend on your situation. I tend to wean slowly because I worry about them getting enough to eat, even when I can see by their round bellies that they are getting more than enough. Mine will be weaned by the time the flock is put on their spring pasture, if not before. Beating the same drum– observe and adapt as the lambs and kids grow. Sometimes 9 of them are ready for weaning off the bottle, and that tenth one still needs some supplementation, even after they are on pasture.

goatling in hay
Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

Bottle babies are a lot of work but give great rewards. My bottle-fed sheep and goats are the friendliest of the flock. Sometimes too friendly because they associate me with food!

What are your tips and tricks for raising bottle babies?

Bits And Pieces

sheep laying in paddock
Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

The last several weeks have been surreal. For us, and for many of our farming friends around the world (those that we know “in real life” and those that we know through social media), the uncertainty of recent events is coupled with the knowledge that our farms must continue. Beasties need cared for, projects need to be completed, equipment needs maintained, plans for the growing season need to be made. Lots of needs to take care of! And because we have the blessing and good fortune to both work from home, things happening off the farm take on an almost dream-like quality. My family and friends are rightfully concerned about their employment and the needs of their children/elders. We are all concerned about the local/state/national/global consequences. And none of us know how long this will last.

I made a grocery run the other day. Although people were feeling the emotional effects of what is happening, most everyone was polite and patient as we waited at the deli and meat counters, looked over the canned and frozen goods, and waited again to check out. The local IGA grocery only has three check-out lanes, and carts were at least five deep at each lane. The young lady running the lane I was in kept apologizing for the delay, so I told her she was going a fantastic job, and none of this was her fault. We still have to “stock up on compassion,” as one Facebook meme said.

flowers
Photo by Unsplash/Annie Spratt

Life on the farm continues, and some significant (to me, at least!) things have happened recently. One of those things is we emptied the barn of about ¾ of the hay bales that we had. That may seem puzzling, but this is hay that was baled in the summer of 2018 when we still had the cattle, who eat a LOT of hay. And waste a lot of hay, as well. We sold the cattle spring of 2019, and still had a barn full of round bales. Sheep and goats definitely don’t eat the quantity of hay that cattle do, and as this has been a milder winter than usual, we knew that there would be way too much hay. Put an ad up on Craigslist, run the numbers to know how much to keep on hand (to get us through to the summer 2020 hay harvest), and “adios” to the rest. It’s shocking at how big the barn looks now!

After several starts, stops, and restarts, we’ve decided that the hair sheep just don’t fit into our plan for the farm, so we will be focusing on the Shetland wool sheep for my fiber business, and the Kinder goats for meat and milk. One post on a Facebook group for sheep, and a lovely family from northeast Ohio drove down to pick up all of my hair sheep ewes and lambs for their flock. Can I just say how much less stressful it is to load sheep than it is to load cattle? I don’t even think my blood pressure elevated! Now I will be focusing even more on raising quality Shetland sheep with good fleeces for spinning into yarn. If you’re interested in fiber, check out my site studioatinnisfree.com  It’s a bit sparse (except for yarn) right now, but will be bursting at the seams with fleeces after shearing happens in April!

yellow crocus in grass and leaves
Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

The crocus are blooming, so spring is still on the way, even though it snowed about 3” a few days ago (it didn’t last long on the ground, and made it a muddy mess). Shetland lambs will be arriving at any time, and the grass is greening up. Some starlings are building a nest in the maple tree outside my window, and it has been exhausting to watch them fly back and forth to get bits of hay, sticks, chicken feathers, and other nest-building materials. These birds are hard-working! I will be starting a whole pile of seeds (lots of things that can be pickled or fermented!) this week and I’m excited to be gardening again. I’m sure that tune will change in June when the temperatures are rising and the weeds are high, but there is joy in watching tiny seeds sprout. Not quite as exciting as lambs, but very close!

packages of seeds
Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

The temperatures are slowly rising, and the natural world is waking up – I hope you are able to join me outside and enjoy early spring!

Making Sauerkraut

cabbage
Photo by Pixabay/kaarenhaywood

Where do you stand on the “sauerkraut scale”? Some folks can’t get enough of the fermented cabbage, others avoid it at all costs, and many may eat a few bites on New Year’s Day with their pork chop and mashed potatoes but won’t seek it out any other time. We are big fans of sauerkraut here at Innisfree – I had been buying Ohio-made kraut from a local store, but the bags are small, and even as delicious as their varieties are, the cost was adding up. My cabbage didn’t produce this year, but I found heads from a local vegetable producer. Once I had my source, I pulled out my equipment, purchased a few things, and was ready to make my own!

stoneware pottery crock
Two gallon crock. Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

I was happy to find a 2-gallon crock in the basement in excellent condition, with no chips on the inside glaze. If you don’t have a pottery crock handy, you can do your fermenting in glass canning jars just as easily. We found a product called “Pickle Pebbles” that are glass weights made especially for small and large mouth glass canning jars. I used them this year as an experiment, and they worked great to keep the cabbage underneath the brine. Plus, if you decide to can your sauerkraut, there is no dipping from a crock to a canning jar! For my 2-gallon crock, I purchased an appropriately sized glass weight from an online company called Stone Creek Trading. If you search for “glass fermentation weights,” you will find many places to buy from. I decided not to buy a pottery weight after reading about bacteria staying in the clay, but I have no direct experience with these weights, so your mileage may vary! And if you don’t want to buy anything fancy, you can use a jelly jar weighted down with beans/rice/pebbles/etc. As long as the smaller jar is heavy enough to keep the food under the brine, you’re good to go.

view of sauerkraut in crock
Glass fermentation weights and fermenting cabbage. Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

To start the process, I pulled out my copy of Sandor Katz’s book Wild Fermentation. He has written several fantastic books on fermenting foods and beverages, but this one is my go-to for nice, simple recipes, although some of them are more guidelines and suggestions than actual recipes. Fermentation is an art, as well as a science, and Katz keeps the art front and center. I highly recommend all of his books, and his website is a wealth of information as well. If you have a copy of the Ball Blue Book, it also has a simple recipe, plus the canning instructions.

Sauerkraut is little more than shredded cabbage, salt, water, a container and weight, and time. You can add many things, like onions and garlic, but the base layer is cabbage and brine. Katz encourages people to dip into the sauerkraut as it ages/ferments to experience the complexity that develops. Having done this, I concur that the taste does change as the fermentation process continues, especially when adding things. The batch of cabbage + garlic sauerkraut went through some remarkable changes as time passed, and the flavors enhanced and mingled. When I canned that batch, the taste brought literal tears to my eyes – I may have let it ferment a little too long because it was potent! I guess it will keep my sinuses clear – hah!

small jar of sauerkraut

A pint wide-mouth canning jar with the "Pickle Pebble" holding down the cabbage. Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

view of sauerkraut in crock
Close-up of the small glass fermentation weight. Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

Homemade sauerkraut, whether fresh or canned, is such a delicious way to preserve cabbage. Whether you ferment one head of cabbage in a few glass canning jars or fill a 5-gallon crock with cabbage, onions, garlic, carrots, and turnips, I think you will be surprised at the difference in taste from just about anything you can buy in the store.

What are your favorite things to ferment?

Adventures In Wool Dyeing

wool dyeing
Photo by Unsplash/Jelleke Vanooteghem 

Up to this point, I have been using all of my home-grown wools in their natural colors. That works just fine with the Shetland wool since they come in a wide range of creams, browns, greys, and black. But I’ve been shuffling around three cones of white Corriedale mill-spun yarn for several years, wondering what to do with it. Nine pounds of yarn with no project in mind, so it all sat in a tote, waiting for something to happen.

Meanwhile, in my fiber storage area, a Greener Shades dyeing kit sat in a box. Nine colors of the rainbow, advertised to be less toxic than other acid dyes, and it looked like a relatively simple process to dye yarn. And there it sat.

Recently, the switch flipped. There was unused yarn, there was yarn dye, I had a stainless steel pot with nothing to do. Let’s order some pH testing strips and block off a few hours to see what kind of mess I could make! While I was waiting for the testing strips to arrive, YouTube entertained me with “how to dye wool yarn” videos, giving me a little more confidence that no, it really wasn’t as difficult as I had imagined it to be. I skeined up some of the Corriedale yarn and pulled out a hat I had already knitted from that yarn to see if it would take the dye any differently than the yarn – I figured if I was going to experiment, let’s experiment with everything! When the test strips arrived, I read everything at least 4 times, checked the pH of my tap water to know how much of the citric acid I should add to set the dye, took a deep breath, and started dyeing yarn.

blue yarn in dyepot
Dyepot with yarn soaking up the blue dye. Photo by  Keba M Hitzeman

Each sample bottle of the dyes was indicated to dye about 3 pounds of yarn, but on my first venture, I didn’t want to commit that much yarn, so I dyed about a pound and a half total – 2 large skeins and a completed hat, all from the Corriedale yarn. The process is not difficult but is time-consuming. Wash the milling oils off the yarn, heat it in the stockpot with plenty of water so the yarn can move (although I’m thinking that if the yarn was in less water, the dye would absorb better in some spots, leading to a more spotted yarn, which would be neat!), add the dye, let it simmer, add citric acid to set the color, let it cool overnight, rinse it the next morning. The skeins were hung up to dry, and the knitted hat is downright spectacular. I proved my hypothesis that I could indeed dye a completed item, which means I can now knit directly from the cone, without having to measure out the amount of yarn I need, wind it to a skein, dye it, wind it to a ball, then knit. Life is good.

wearing a blue hat
The white spots are where the yarn didn't take the dye as well - it gives interesting texture to the finished product! Photo by  Keba M Hitzeman

I tend to get unnecessarily nervous when trying new things, especially when I need to take a nice item that I have (in this case, a stainless steel stockpot) and “sacrifice” it to an activity with no assurance of success. But now I have a whole pile of beautiful, brightly colored yarns to knit with. I have done blue, red, and green yarn, and dyed a finished hat orange (that one is for me!).  And I have still have a lot to play around with – I learned from some fiber friends how to mix the colors like paint, sprinkle the dry dye on the wet yarn for speckles, and dip dye each end to make multi-colored skeins.  Those will make some truly one-of-a-kind knitted things. I also discovered that you can dye natural fiber yarns with Kool-Aid powder and Rit dyes. Some fiber friends use the turkey roasting pans that you can get at the grocery instead of stockpots, especially if they are making multi-colored yarns or speckled. So many options!

red and green yarns
Skeins of green and red yarns drying. Photo by  Keba M Hitzeman

Moral of the story? Just do the thing. Chances are, you’re going to succeed at it. Sometimes you won’t, but I’m pretty sure that’s part of the learning process, too. And if nothing else, you discover whether or not that thing is something you want to continue doing.

Have you dyed yarn before? What method did you use, and how did it turn out?

Some Help From My Friends

pile of brush and branches
It doesn't look like much, but that pile is about 10' long, 6' deep, and 8' tall! Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

There are many farm projects and tasks that one person can complete on their own. Some of those projects may take longer when working solo, but it can be done. On the flip side, some things need more than one person, for safety reasons, time constraints, or simply because it makes the time pass quicker. Of course, many people may want to help, but they have their own obligations that prohibit helping on the farm. When the stars and the schedules align, it’s incredible to me how much can be accomplished with even one extra person helping.

I’ve written before about projects and their relative priority – fence repairs and haymaking trump picking up fallen branches and mowing. When I do have the opportunity to knock out some of those lower-priority-but-need-done-eventually tasks with a willing helper, I’ll gladly take the help!

leaves
Photo by Unsplash/Janine Joles

Once the hot and humid summer was mostly over, and we wouldn’t sweat ourselves to death while working outside, a good friend spent several Thursdays helping me with some projects that had been languishing at the bottom of the to-do list – moving an astounding amount of brush to two specific locations, and turning our lumber storage area 90 degrees. Brush-moving is not exactly difficult work, but it is time-intensive. Cut the brush down, load as much as you can on the tractor forks (making sure it’s balanced and won’t fall off as you round a corner), drive to the drop-off location, dump the brush, drive back, repeat. That’s a lot of getting on/getting off the tractor when working by yourself! This time, most of the brush was already on the ground, so it was a matter of loading, driving, unloading. There were some areas where I could drive the tractor along very slowly as she loaded the brush onto the forks. That was certainly a time-saver, and now, my fields and yards are (mostly!) free of brush and branches.

lumber on metal shelves
Now I can find the right lumber for the job! I still have to sort and stack the short pieces that are piled up nearby. Photo by Keba M Hitzeman

The other project was the lumber storage area in the barn. There used to be a hopper wagon at the front of that area where we kept oats for the horses. We needed a place for the lumber, so we put up some metal shelves behind that wagon and slid the lumber into place. Unfortunately, that whole area turned into a storage nightmare – cluttered, almost no light, hard to reach. When the horses left, we removed the hopper wagon and agreed that the lumber storage should be turned 90 degrees to more easily reach everything. And it just never came to the top of the project pile until now. In one work session, my friend and I unloaded every stick of wood from the shelves (short pieces in one giant pile on the floor, and long pieces in another) and turned the three shelves 90 degrees. It took around three hours, and we were beat afterward!

I find it difficult to ask for help, but I’m slowly learning that it’s safer, more time effective, and more enjoyable to work with someone. I’m less likely to over-do it because I’m watching my helper to make sure they are not overworking. I’ll take more breaks because I don’t want them to get dehydrated. The social aspect of working together can’t be overlooked either – “solving the world’s problems” as some manual labor happens. Perhaps most importantly, I don’t want to abuse these opportunities, so I always think about which projects would benefit the most from extra hands before asking. Sometimes I overestimate how long something will take, and if that thing is finished in half an hour, there needs to be something else to do, which means I think about two or three projects that we can work on. And they need to be projects that my helpers have the skills to work on – if they’ve never used a chainsaw before, I can’t reasonably ask them to cut down honeysuckle while I’m hauling it to the brush pile!

Farming and homesteading can be challenging, but if you have friends, family, or neighbors who tell you, “just let me know if you need some help,” you may find that your challenges are a bit easier to manage. It could take some creativity in scheduling, but the outcome (finished projects) can make that all worthwhile.

What projects have you finished with some help from your friends?

Janine Joles






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