Know Your Turkey Facts and History

Though native to North America, the wild turkey probably wasn’t part of the First Thanksgiving. Read more for your fill of turkey facts.

  • Wild Turkey Encounter
    Once rare, conservation efforts have again made wild turkey sightings commonplace.
    courtesy Tom Evans/National Wild Turkey Federation
  • Wild Turkey Toms Displaying
    Two wild turkey toms on the strut.
    courtesy Maslowski/National Wild Turkey Federation
  • Broad Breasted Whites
    Most commercially raised turkeys are of the Broad Breasted White variety. Abers-Kimball
  • Curious Turkey
    What are you looking at? Get back to work! Elwell

  • Wild Turkey Encounter
  • Wild Turkey Toms Displaying
  • Broad Breasted Whites
  • Curious Turkey

Legend has it that Ben Franklin lobbied Congress to make the wild turkey America’s National Bird. Good thing he didn’t: Imagine how empty our Thanksgiving tables would look. 

Although nobody really knows where Meleagris gallopavo (the scientific name for a common turkey) came from or who first domesticated it, we do know that early Mexicans tamed the turk in pre-
Columbian times. Turkey carcasses have been discovered at archaeological sites dating back nearly 6,000 years, which surely meant leftovers for somebody, sometime. North American Indians called the bird “firkee,” but some say Columbus listened to the “turk, turk, turk” sound and named the bird himself.

What a turkey! 

Though not all Native Americans relished turkey on their tables (some considered the bird fowl in more ways than one), explorers found it tasty and returned to Europe with new, feathered fare. In the early 1500s, Spain embraced turkeys for feasts; by the middle 1500s, upper-class English diners were dining on turkey. 

Within 170 years, those Englishmen were playing the “Mine’s Bigger Than Yours” game back in America, with various chroniclers bragging about 40- to 60-pound wild turkeys on the spit. While they were almost surely exaggerating, wild turkeys then really were much larger than domestic turkeys. Today, the vice is versa: wild gobblers tend to weigh 15 to 18 pounds dressed, while a naked domestic bird can weigh more than twice that.  

And there are more differences: While wild turkeys have retained their ability to run (they can briefly best even the most accomplished athlete) and fly (as fast as the National Speed Limit), most domestic turkeys can strut for short distances, if they’re lucky, and cannot fly at all. In the wild, the average turkey lives to a ripe old age of 4 years, while the bird in the barn goes bye-bye after 612 months. Domestic turkeys have to make do with mostly white feathers, while their wild brethren come in a wide variety of colors, including brown, black, reddish and iridescent blue. Wild turkeys, by the way, were almost hunted to extinction about a hundred years ago but returned to safe levels in the wild, thanks to conservation efforts.  

Despite the myth that turkeys will drown by looking into the sky during a rainstorm (which is just that: a myth), turkeys are no dumb bunnies. They’re social critters and, though toms will fight for territory, they generally like to hang out together. They are curious, especially when it comes to people. Turkeys see in color, have three times the daytime vision of humans, and their iconic gobble (used only by talkative toms) can be heard up to a mile away. Turkey meat is low in fat, high in protein, and makes for a great feast. 

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